Why Won’t Electric Semi Trucks Work?

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With significant investments in technology from both governments and automakers, the world is moving towards electric cars (EVs). The desire for a more environmentally friendly future has also increased interest in electric semi trucks. Electric vehicles claim to lower pollutants, save money on gasoline, and offer a quieter and more comfortable ride. The fundamental concern is still, though, whether electric semi-trucks will actually last over the long term. Notwithstanding the advantages, there are still many obstacles to be solved, including restrictions on battery capacity, poor charging infrastructure, and driver safety issues.

These issues will be covered in depth in this essay along with a thorough examination of the viability of electric semi trucks. We will also look at actual applications for electric semi trucks as well as alternatives to conventional diesel-powered trucks. Finally, we will look at the prospects for electric semi trucks in relation to the development of EVs more generally.

The Challenges of Electric Semi Trucks

Electric Semi Trucks

electric semi trucks face significant challenges that must be addressed before they can become a viable alternative to diesel-powered trucks. Some of these challenges include:

  1. Limitations on battery size and weight: To power their electric motors, electric trucks need huge, heavy battery packs. The truck’s efficiency and range are decreased as a result of the weight of these batteries, which also restricts the amount of freight it can transport. The vehicle is also more expensive because of the size and weight of the batteries, making it less practical than conventional diesel trucks.
  2. Limited charging infrastructure: To keep electric trucks operating, a reliable charging infrastructure is required. Nevertheless, compared to the infrastructure for diesel vehicles, the charging infrastructure for electric trucks is less established and still in its infancy. Operating electric trucks on long-haul routes presents difficulties due to the lack of reliable charging infrastructure.
  3. Range anxiety and driver worries: Drivers of electric trucks are particularly concerned about range anxiety since they fear running out of juice before getting to their destination. The availability of charging stations and the length of time it takes to charge the batteries are further concerns for drivers. Drivers must be trained to operate electric vehicles safely and efficiently, and they require a different driving style than diesel trucks.
  4. Electric trucks are currently more expensive than diesel trucks, making it challenging for fleets to justify the investment. They also have long payback periods. Although having lower operational expenses than diesel trucks, electric trucks have a longer payback period due to their higher upfront cost.
  5. Technological restrictions on heavy-duty applications: Electric trucks might not be appropriate for demanding tasks like hauling big loads or operating in inclement weather. Extreme temperatures can have an impact on the performance of the batteries, and the electric motors and batteries might not be strong enough to manage the demands of heavy-duty applications.

The success of electric semi trucks depends on overcoming these obstacles. The transportation industry has a long way to go before electric trucks can become a commonplace answer, despite the advancements that have been made.

Real-World Examples of Electric Semi Trucks

Electric Semi Trucks

Several automakers and startups have developed electric semi trucks, which are currently being tested in real-world conditions. Here are some examples of electric semi trucks:

  1. One of the most well-known electric semi trucks is the Tesla Semi. With a single charge, the vehicle can travel up to 500 miles and accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in just 20 seconds. With four separate electric motors and an aerodynamic profile that decreases wind resistance, the Tesla Semi has a distinctive design. Production of the Tesla Semi is anticipated to begin in 2021.
  2. Daimler eCascadia: Daimler, the parent company of Mercedes-Benz, developed the eCascadia, a heavy-duty electric semi truck. The eCascadia can be fully charged to 80% in about 90 minutes and has a range of up to 250 miles on a single charge. The vehicle has an electric drivetrain that consists of two electric motors that provide 730 horsepower when used together. In California, the eCascadia is presently undergoing field testing.
  3. Volvo VNR Electric: Volvo Trucks North America created the VNR Electric, an electric semi truck. The VNR Electric can be fully charged to 80% in just 70 minutes and has a range of up to 150 miles on a single charge. A total of 455 horsepower is produced by the truck’s electric drivetrain, which consists of two electric motors. In Southern California, the VNR Electric is being tested in actual conditions.
  4. The Nikola One is a hybrid semi truck powered by electricity and hydrogen fuel cells that were created by Nikola Motor Corporation. The truck can travel up to 500 miles on a single charge and features an onboard hydrogen fuel cell that can produce power. The vehicle also has an electric drivetrain with a 1,000 horsepower total output. In 2023, the Nikola One is anticipated to go into production.

These are only a few of the current prototypes and tests for electric semi trucks. Even if these trucks have great potential, there are still obstacles to be addressed before electric semi trucks are widely used as a transportation sector solution.

Analysis of the Challenges

Electric Semi Trucks

Electric semi trucks face several significant challenges that must be addressed to become a viable alternative to diesel-powered trucks. Let’s take a closer look at each challenge:

  1. Limitations on battery capacity and weight: The quantity of freight that electric trucks can transport is restricted by the weight and size of the battery packs required to power them, which lowers their efficiency and range. Electric trucks are more expensive than diesel trucks due to the increased cost of batteries. Future batteries might be more effective and affordable because of advancements in battery technology.
  2. Low availability of charging infrastructure: One of the biggest problems with electric trucks is the lack of adequate charging infrastructure. More funding is required to provide a reliable charging infrastructure that can accommodate the growing number of electric trucks on the road in order to overcome this. To make this a reality, governments and private businesses must collaborate.
  3. Driver worries and range anxiety: Electric truck drivers who worry about running out of power before arriving at their destination have serious issues. Drivers must have the necessary instruction and training to operate electric trucks safely and effectively. Creating charging systems that are more effective could potentially allay some of these worries.
  4. Electric trucks are currently more expensive than diesel trucks, making it difficult for fleets to justify the investment. They also have long payback periods. But, over time, decreased ongoing expenses, like as gasoline and maintenance, might offset the higher initial expenditures. Also, governments might provide incentives to promote the use of electric trucks.
  5. Because of technical restrictions, electric trucks might not be appropriate for heavy-duty applications. Electric vehicles, though, might end up being a more sensible choice for heavy-duty applications as battery technology develops. In this field, more investigation and development are required.

Overall, the difficulties faced by electric semi trucks are considerable but solvable. These issues can be solved and the route for a greener future opened up with continued investment in R&D, charging infrastructure, and incentives for fleet operators.

Alternative Solutions

While electric semi trucks show promise, there are also alternative solutions to reduce emissions and improve the efficiency of the transportation industry. Here are some alternative solutions:

  1. Hybrid electric-diesel trucks: These vehicles combine the advantages of electric and diesel power sources to increase range and efficiency. Although having smaller battery packs than all-electric trucks, hybrid electric-diesel trucks can still save on pollution and gasoline. For long-distance journeys that need a greater range, hybrid trucks may be a more realistic option.
  2. Natural gas trucks: Compared to diesel trucks, natural gas-powered trucks release fewer greenhouse gases, making them a more environmentally friendly option. Furthermore plentiful and reasonably priced, the petrol. The infrastructure for natural gas fuelling stations is still insufficient, making the widespread use of natural gas trucks difficult.
  3. Biofuels: Renewable alternatives to fossil fuels include biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Biofuels can lower pollutants and can be used in existing diesel engines without requiring major modifications. Biofuels are sometimes less sustainable than electric trucks since they need land, water, and other resources to produce them.
  4. Autonomous vehicles: By maximizing routes and decreasing idle time, autonomous trucks have the potential to lower emissions and increase efficiency. In addition to making roadways safer, autonomous trucks may potentially lessen accidents brought on by driver inattention or exhaustion. Before autonomous trucks become a reality, there are still technical and legal obstacles to be solved.
  5. Mass transportation: By moving a lot of people or cargo in one journey, mass transit, like trains or buses, can help cut emissions. Moreover, mass transit helps ease traffic congestion and is more energy-efficient than individual vehicles.

Each of these alternate options has advantages and disadvantages, and some may be better suited for particular use scenarios. The secret is to keep looking into and making investments in new technology and solutions to lower emissions and boost the effectiveness of the transportation sector.

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In conclusion, electric semi trucks present a promising substitute for diesel-powered vehicles, but they still need to overcome a number of obstacles to become a practical choice. Other obstacles that need to be overcome include battery capacity and weight restrictions, a lack of adequate charging infrastructure, range anxiety, driver worries, high upfront costs, and technical restrictions on heavy-duty applications.

Other approaches, such as biofuels, autonomous trucks, natural gas trucks, hybrid electric-diesel trucks, and public transit, can also assist lower emissions and boosting the effectiveness of the transportation sector.

Continued investment in R&D, infrastructure, and rewards for fleet operators are essential for a sustainable and effective transportation system. Electric semi-trucks and other alternative alternatives can help pave the path for a greener future with sustained advancement and innovation.


Q. What is the range of an electric semi truck?

A. The range of an electric semi truck can vary depending on factors such as the weight of the cargo, driving conditions, and weather. Most electric semi trucks can travel up to 300 miles on a single charge, while some models can travel up to 500 miles.

Q. How long does it take to charge an electric semi truck?

A. The charging time for an electric semi truck can vary depending on the battery size, charging technology, and charging infrastructure. Most electric semi trucks can be charged to 80% capacity in 30 minutes to an hour using fast-charging stations. However, a full charge can take several hours to complete.

Q. What is range anxiety?

A. Range anxiety is a concern among electric truck drivers who worry about running out of power before reaching their destination. Drivers may avoid routes or trips that require a longer range than the truck can provide, limiting the efficiency and productivity of the truck.

Q. Are electric semi trucks more expensive than diesel trucks?

A. Yes, electric semi trucks are currently more expensive than diesel trucks. The cost of the battery packs and the limited availability of charging infrastructure are some of the factors contributing to the higher cost. However, lower operating costs, including fuel and maintenance, can make up for the higher upfront costs over time.

Q. Are electric semi trucks suitable for heavy-duty applications?

A. Electric semi trucks may not be suitable for heavy-duty applications, such as hauling heavy loads or long-haul routes, due to technical limitations. However, as battery technology advances, electric trucks may become a more viable option for heavy-duty applications in the future.

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